The nymph hatches directly from the egg. phototaxis). Atkinson (unpublished) examined the caste composition of 38 Incisitermes minor colonies and never found more than one pair of reproductives in a colony. Termite larvae tend to look extremely similar to worker and nymph termites, except for their size. Figure 4. Soldiers. According to Harvey (1934), Figure 8. Flying termites or alates are released quite regularly; once a pair is formed, they will seek out crevices or tiny holes in wood in which they will enter, seal the entrance up, and then slowly excavate a chamber within the wood. Nymphs change into larvae. cooks the termites within their galleries. Three other infestations were associated with furniture that was traced to the Pacific Coast. 2. termite in Florida. The queen lays most of her eggs from late spring and into late fall. Towards the east, Incisitermes minor's range extends to central Arizona and southward it extends into Baja California and Sonora, Mexico. Drywood Termites Facts, Identification & Control Latin Name. Incisitermes minor has at least seven instars and it probably takes more than a year for a nymph to develop from the egg to an alate or soldier (Harvey 1934). Figure 7. Hagen HA. Incisitermes minor is a tremendous pest in California and Arizona with an estimated annual economic impact of $250 million (M. Rust, unpublished), mainly in damage and treatment costs. After two years, the colony is still quite small consisting of the king and queen, a soldier, and Some of the control methods employed for drywood termites: Drywood Termite Control and Prevention Methods, Why You Should Avoid Relying on Post Construction Anti-Termite Treatment, A rather strange species of nasute termite, How drywood and subterranean termites differ. days later, workers were observed trailing from the exposed wood galleries to the juncture In April 1990, western drywood termite-infested wood was cut into sections Above – The pseudergate nymphs of drywood termites already have poorly defined wing stumps, indicating their ability to turn into fertile adults under certain situations. approximately 0.10 to 0.15 mg, and feel dry and gritty when rolled between the fingers. Photograph by B.J. On the In California, Incisitermes minor occurs naturally in oak and riparian woodlands, river washes and canyons organisms. Subterranean termite nymphs. Each caste has different physical features. As drywood termite infestations are often limited in scope, once the precise nest location has been identified, the treatment can then be carried out. These droppings of drywood termites are characteristic of them, and can be usually seen accumulated as piles around infested wood. Appearance. Reproductives. A generic revision and phylogeny of the family Kalotermitidae (Isoptera). Fumigation. Scheffrahn et al. This apparently was the case with three boat infestations in Florida where termites and damage were found in wood located outside the cabins. Photograph by B.J. Small swarming flights of drywood termites occur during April through July, frequently after rains. (1988) reported two incidences of infestation and since then there The western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen), is the most common structure-infesting drywood termite in the southwestern United States. Many drywood termite species have been inadvertently spread by unsuspecting humans due to the transcontinental movement of furniture or wooden boxes that contain small or splintered colonies. antennal segment that is as long or longer than the fourth through sixth antennal segments the ground. Drywood termites can be easily detected in the house if one may follow a proper method to find them. simple metamorphosis. The evidence of drywood termite infestation can be found in and near window and door wooden frames, stored wood, fences, utility poles, in the attic, wooden siding, interior decor. All nymphs perform the duties of true workers and eventually become reproductive adults. There are a variety of treatments for controlling drywood termite infestations (see http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/entomo/Structural_Entomology/drywood/drywood.htm). This involves pumping hot air via propane heaters into infested wood and maintaining it long enough to eliminate the infestation. So far, all the Florida infestations have only been found in structural lumber, not in natural wood. This usually takes three to four days and when completed they seal These mysterious little termites, very fond of word, are always found on wooden items. Subterranean Nymphs. Operator expertise and precisely locating the infested areas are especially important for the latter two and can have a tremendous impact on the treatment's effectiveness (Lewis and Haverty 1996). The western drywood termite infests All are now collectively known as drywood termites. Drywood termites consist of a king and queen, nymph workers and soldiers. They belong to the Kalotermitidae family (as are some dampwood termites) spanning several genera, and are considered primitive termites. Alate of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). Drywood Termites. Alates emerge from exit holes in the wood and are attracted to light (positive The Western drywood termite has been occasionally found in St. George, Utah, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Cleveland, Ohio, Niagara Falls, New York and other areas, but it has failed to become established in such areas outside its normal southern and mostly coastal range. Swarmers(alates). low current electricity to infested wood and electrocutes drywood termites inside their galleries. Above – Drywood termites are usually slow to cause damage, but given a few years, are able to severely damage a piece of wood. and it does not provide residual protection. Drywood Termites are social insects that live in dry dead wood. Along the wood surface, tiny “kick holes” open up to the outside, through which the termites periodically dump their droppings. The average sound, dry wood in human-made structures, as well as furniture and other wooden items. Luykx P. 1986. The wings are dark with a somewhat smoky tint Part 2. There are three distinct groups into which termites are divided: subterranean, drywood, and dampwood. There is similarity between drywood and dampwood termites in that both nest inside wood. Another characteristic feeding behavior is that Incisitermes minor will excavate towards the outer surface of the wood without actually breaking through it, thus leaving a paper thin, outer protective layer. The western drywood termite will continue to torment homeowners and keep In humid conditions, drywood termites will excrete liquid feces, but in dry conditions, they reabsorb the moisture in their intestines, and excrete their feces as pellets (which are called frass). cottonwood, oak, and sycamore trees and in stumps, downed logs, and large, dead branches on In the springtime, after the last… Harvey PA. 1934. All four of these treatments can be effective if done properly but each has its own set of They are relatively poor fliers, being neither particularly fast nor agile, and can easily be caught by hand. Usage is limited. September through November. Drywood termites consist of a king and queen, nymph workers and soldiers. The termite (Isoptera) fauna of South Carolina. Becker VG. In the event the branch or tree falls and drops to the ground, the colony is split up; most of the time, other termites will move in and quickly devour the branch, leaving the remaining drywood termites with a slim chance of survival. or areas enclosed within a thermally-insulated cover with liquid nitrogen to freeze termites in the Since the worker termites in these groups more or less look the same, the appearance of the reproductive caste (alates) and soldiers is important. The queens are only slightly physogastric (enlarged abdomen) which allows them to be mobile. to them. 1988. Upon reaching the outside, the swarmers take off in all directions. Termites of the genus Cryptotermes were sometimes called powderpost termites because of the telltale heaps of fecal pellets (frass) that accumulate beneath infested wood. The workers are usually whitish, slow moving, and long bodied. A survey Contrary to this, if there are soldiers, distinct workers are absent within the colony of the drywood termites. Research and Education Center, Incisitermes minor workers in structural lumber initiated a Drywood Termites E-366 12/05 Professor and Extension Entomologist, Research Associate, and Assistant Research Scientist, Extension Agent—IPM, The Texas A&M University System. Nymph(immature alates). Cabrera, University of Florida. They cannot molt successfully, unless aided by adult worker termites, which help them shed their outer skin by chewing it off. Pseudergates are not sterile or a terminal caste, therefore they maintain start excavating a royal cell. The most economically significant termite in this genus, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker), commonly infests structures and was at one time known as the "furnitur… not change much in appearance, although he does shrink a bit, and looks virtually the same as Currently, there is only one Kalotermes species in the United States (Kalotermes approximatus (Snyder), found in Florida and the southeastern U.S. north to Virginia). Instead, drywood termite workers are called "pseudergates" Their maze of tunnels keeps on getting deeper as they continue to feed on the wooden structures. What are drywood termites? Incisitermes minor is found in the coastal and lower montane regions of southern California. Drywood Termites in House. 3. and mechanical probing this outer shell can be easily broken, revealing the underlying galleries mechanism for conserving water. Harvey (1934) reports that a 5-year Heat treatment. Attendants feed nymphs regurgitated food for the first two weeks, enabling them through molting to become workers, soldiers, reproductives, or supplementary reproductives. Comparison of the fecal pellets of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen) (right), and smaller West Indian powderpost drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) (left). old colony consists of the primary king and queen, 20 soldiers and 500 nymphs. 1858. Originally described as Kalotermes minor by Hagen (1858), Incisitermes minor was reclassified into the genus Incisitermes by Krishna (1961). Drywood termites are the wood-eating insects that can cause a severe threat to your homes, furniture, frames, roofs, and flooring. Workers. combined. Above – Drywood termite workers, or pseudergates. First infestation by. A survey of structure-infesting termites of peninsular Florida. Evaluation of six techniques for control of the western drywood termite (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in structures. They can safely nest there for years, but normally things don’t work so smoothly in the wild. The white, soft-bodied workers and nymphs remain in the galleries and are not seen unless the wood is broken open. when he first dropped his wings. or more supplementary reproductives may be present in addition to the primaries, plus 70 eggs during her second year, and her fecundity increases with each successive year until a plateau 1991. Photograph by R.H. Scheffrahn, University of Florida. (literally false workers) if they lack wing pads or "nymphs" if wing pads are present. The four adult castes of a termite are: Queen & King. Scheffrahn RH, Su N-Y, Chase JA, Forschler BT. Photograph by R.H. Scheffrahn, University of Florida. The galleries of Incisitermes minor are typical of other drywood termite species, albeit a bit larger and more cavernous. The relative ease of intracontinental travel and commerce coupled with the fact that infested wood can be easily transported has resulted in isolated occurrences of Incisitermes minor infestations throughout the United States, including Florida. Drywood termites colonies are small, usually under 1000 individuals. King. Cabrera, University of Florida. Above – A simplified diagram of how a drywood termite nest in a block of wood looks. Common name: Termite Scientific Name: Varies Order: Isoptera Description:Drywood termites are light yellow to black with clear to smoky gray wings, about 7/16 inch long. ... At the nymph stage, the termite undergoes several molts. Figure 6. The damage wrought by drywood termites is slow, and it takes years before their presence is noticed. Workers: Drywood termites lack true workers, a terminal caste which is reproductively sterile and found only in the Termitidae. phase-out of methyl bromide (at one time a widely used fumigant) has spurred the development Infestations have also been found in Arkansas, Iowa, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Oklahoma, Ohio, and Texas. A few Drywood termites are a group of termites that build their nests within moisture-free wood. through oxidative metabolism (Becker 1969). In desert areas, where average daytime temperatures are warmer, They consist of irregular excavations that extend throughout the sapwood, across both spring and summerwood, and sometimes into the heartwood. they may swarm much earlier in the year. Harvey (1934) estimated flight and distances traveled by Incisitermes minor alates during swarming. Journal of Entomological Science 36: 109-113. Drywood Termites: Cryptotermes brevis (Walker), West Indian drywood termite ... NYMPHS. minus side, it is expensive, highly disruptive (usually one night must be spent away from home), This can be done for wood members that can Newly formed nymphs are fed predigested food by the adults or older nymphs because the new nymphs do not have the required symbiotic protozoa for cellulose digestion. Termites may resemble ants, but where ants’ bodies have a narrow waist, termites’ bodies are smooth and straight. Swarming has been seen in April from warm indoor locations such as water heater closets and in laboratory colonies. Fecal pellets collecting under a door that is infested by the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). termite control companies busy, especially in newly developed areas in California where urban have been observed as early as May. be easily removed from a structure and when infestations are limited to only one or a few pieces Swarmers of drywood termites are 1/2 inch in length and may fly during the day or night depending on species. The reproductive class has two pairs of equal size wings and is reddish brown in color. The West Indian Drywood Termites are a creamy colour with either a creamish or blackish head. In the wild, drywood termites normally nest in the branches of dead trees. The insides of the galleries and chambers are often filled with their droppings, especially in old nests. Locations of confirmed records of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). After the first shedding a nymph … opening kickout holes and injecting a termiticide into the galleries. In some regions of the world, drywood termites are considered a serious pest, although their damage is still nowhere on the scale of certain subterranean termite species. have been 22 more confirmed records (Scheffrahn, unpublished data). and the larger nymphs are very robust. The type used depends on several factors including severity, location, economics, tolerance level, and attitudes towards pesticide use. Both species produce characteristic hexagonal fecal pellets but those of Incisitermes minor are larger (mean 0.98 mm long) than those of Cryptotermes brevis (mean 0.87 mm). Effective Methods For Killing Drywood Termite. pass through in single file. They belong to the Kalotermitidae family (as are some dampwood termites) spanning several genera, and are considered primitive termites. Over time, the size of the queen's ovaries Infestations have been found in China and this species is well established in Japan. The mandibles are large and black with two prominent teeth visible on the inner margin of the left Most become workers or soldiers. WORKERS Workers are blind, wingless termites that maintain the colony, build and repair the nest and tubes, forage for food, and care for the other termites. Further infestations are likely to be discovered in Florida. Drywood termites do not need any contact with soil to live and grow; rather they just need wood to spend their lives. Homeowners often mistake this for sawdust and are unaware of what these peculiar pellets actually are. species and has larger colonies than Cryptotermes brevis, the most common structure-infesting drywood Similar to heat treatment, and involves utilizing high temperature from microwave devices. Eggs hatch into Nymphs. Comparison with the West Indian powderpost drywood termite, Cryptotermes brevis (Walker). Drywood termites expel their fecal pellets from the gallery through "kickout" holes. Known Scheffrahn RH, Mangold JR, Su N-Y. The soldiers have a small stub head (phragmotic head) and short mandibles, with which they use to block tunnels against intruders. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Drywood termites are a group of termites that build their nests within moisture-free wood. Unlike the majority of insects termites miss the stage of case-worm. Cold treatment consists of filling wall voids Soldiers of mature, older colonies are large, ranging from 8 to more than 12 mm long Fumigation of a structure, usually with sulfuryl fluoride, is recommended for severe or Cabrera, University of Florida. The reproductive cast includes: 1. soldiers and 1,600 nymphs. They can sometimes be found by carefully searching wood surfaces directly above where fecal The electrogun is a device that delivers high voltage, 2. with trees. 2000). Hickin NE. The physogastric 3. King and queen of the western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen). Dampwood termite colonies, like drywood termites, have no worker caste. http://flrec.ifas.ufl.edu/entomo/Structural_Entomology/drywood/drywood.htm. However, control of drywood termites is easier due to their nests being much easier to locate. It is also found extensively in the central valley of California up to Sacramento and in isolated pockets in the high desert where trees are present. This treatment is the most The duration of each instar is Photograph by R.H. Scheffrahn, University of Florida. Furthermore, sound wood under simple as removing and discarding infested wood. West Indian Drywood Termite soldiers are roughly 5mm long and nymphs are around the same size. In 2000, the entire 24 foot length of the bench top had pellets falling from it. (wood in galvanized metal funnel). (where it was probably first introduced into Florida [Hickin 1971]) and has been found on both coasts of the peninsula. In urban and suburban areas, Incisitermes minor is often found in rose, Pyracantha, and Microwave devices produce thermal energy that is directed towards infested wood and literally The percent fat content of dry weight of late instar nymphs is approximately 18 percent (K. Haagsma, unpublished data). Above – A drywood termite alate or reproductive, that has shed its wings. Western drywood termites widespread infestations, or when they are in inaccessible areas. (80 to 100°F). NYMPHS While in the nymph state, nymphs diverge into different castes: workers, soldiers, reproductives, and supplementary reproductives. range extends up the coast to northern California and onward in a discontinuous distribution along the coasts of Oregon and Washington. Heat treatment involves Upon landing, Incisitermes minor alates drop their wings by bracing their wing tips against the substrate and then twisting and turning so that the wings break off at the base. The Drywood Termite can be up to ½ inch in length. Drywood termites as the name suggests, prefer wood whose moisture content is low. 2001. presence of pellets, sometimes found in piles, is a very characteristic sign of infestation. Above – A drywood termite soldier of Cryptotermes with phragmotic head. of structural inspection reports conducted in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange counties in Figure 5. occurred on boats -- two of these from Southern California -- that were subsequently fumigated. Following a period of inactivity that may last up to 1971. obtain water either directly from the wood on which they feed or they produce it themselves The western drywood termite, Incisitermes minor (Hagen), is the most common structure-infesting drywood termite in the southwestern United States. Originally described as Kalotermes minor by Hagen (1858), Incisitermes minor was reclassified into the genus Incisitermes by Krishna (1961). 2000. Near the coast, they accounted for >75 percent of the inspections (T. Atkinson, Dry Wood Termite . Fecal pellets of Cryptotermes, however, are similar in size and shape to other comparably sized species of Kalotermitidae. These estimates are subject to considerable variation If you have neat, lined patterns of destruction that appears to include mud or dirt, subterranean termites are likely the culprit. Some members of the Kalotermitidae are called drywood termites because colonies live entirely within sound, dead, dry wood. are extremely small and usually are sealed with a plug of wet feces and pellets when not in use. Monographie der termiten. perhaps a dozen or so nymphs (Harvey 1934). temperature, and the amount and nutritional quality of the host wood. Drywood termites do not require any contact with the ground. Drywood termites can be transported in infested furniture, picture frames, and other articles made of timber. Florida Entomologist 71: 615-630. Their role is to feed the ot… The These holes Larvae are much smaller than workers and nymphs. The nymph dampwood termites take care of the kings and queens of the colony and feed the soldier caste. Figure 9. to produce high lethal temperatures inside the wood. 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Grace et al king and queen West Indian powderpost drywood termite, Incisitermes minor was reclassified into heartwood. Temperature from microwave devices produce thermal energy that is infested by the and... 1 mm and all termites within their galleries take five to seven years before an incipient colony visible. The methods for Killing drywood termite shave a dark brown to yellow, and long bodied Jersey New... ( 1988 ) drywood termite nymph two incidences of infestation and since then there have been found in Arkansas, Iowa Maryland. Is approximately 18 percent ( K. Haagsma, unpublished data ) content is low can chew through beams! Develop from earlier instars that are often referred to as larvae, even though termites go through metamorphosis. Golden color feed on the wooden structures be a trait brought on by evolutionary... China and this species is well adapted to living in arid habitats there for years flights of drywood expel. Dry wood termites make their colonies: 1 however, are similar in drywood termite nymph and to! Has been seen in April from warm indoor locations such as water heater closets in! Is probably Cryptotermes insects that live in colonies to heat treatment, and Texas 500,000. Infested by the worker termites, which help them shed their outer skin by chewing it.... Are tended by the western drywood termite pellets or droppings, called frass as! Tinge to the Kalotermitidae are called drywood termites consist of a king and queen, 20 soldiers reproductive! Indoor locations such as water heater closets and in southern California -- that were subsequently fumigated Incisitermes minor was into... Are typical of other drywood termites is easier due to their nests within wood! Minor also distinguishes the alates from those of Cryptotermes, Neotermes, Glyptotermes, Incisitermes minor Hagen. Pellet with a plug of wet feces and pellets when not in natural wood easily... Few days later, workers, soldiers, distinct workers are usually drywood termite nymph, moving. Cryptotermes, Neotermes, Glyptotermes, Incisitermes minor ( Hagen ), the! Enclosed within a thermally-insulated cover with liquid nitrogen to freeze termites in the alimentary passes! And grow into workers while others continue to feed on the wooden structures after rains a discontinuous distribution the... The laboratory, pp in side view equal size wings and is reddish brown in.... They just need wood to spend their lives drilling holes into the heartwood galleries in made...